TOPIC 2 Reflection: Really?

Can “Fake News” be prevented? Before jumping into the “prevention of fake news”, let me cover some contributions on how we receive news digitally. Take a look at the video below for information on Echo Chambers and Filter Bubbles.

Source: Self-produced using POWTOON

Now that we understand how digital information is delivered to us. Let’s look at how we can evaluate them using the “PROMPT” and “CRAAP” method.

Evaluating Information.jpg

Fig 1.1 | Self-produced infographic on “PROMPT” method


Fig 1.2 | Self-produced infographic on “CRAAP” method

Fake News?


Fig 2.1|Weapons of Fake news by Media Matters

Jocelyn’s post shows us how to further evaluate “Fake news” with an interesting exercise. I also found out that Buzzfeed, a popular site, is the least “trustworthy” for information!

Through my discussion with Jocelyn, I found out that researchers from Cambridge believe by “preemptively exposing” people to fake news, readers will begin to develop a resistance to it – they call it the “psychological vaccine” (Walton, 2017).  This brings us to the prevention of “Fake news”…

Can it be prevented?

“Therefore, efforts to overcome a post-truth society should be conscious of two things: the digital, information and data literacy of the individual as well as the environment the information lives in. ”

Chong, 2017

Shanelle’s post shows that it is crucial for individuals and organization (news providers and news websites) to take steps to curate their news feed. She also listed some methods on how the user and organization could take when dealing with “Fake news”.


Fig 2.2 | Dealing with Misinformation infographic by Shanelle

Through my discussion with her in the comments, I found out that a survey conducted shows that 51% of the respondents think that the information environment will not improve because the fake news ecosystem preys on our deepest human instincts and that our brains are not wired to contend with technological change (Pew Research Centre, 2017). Furthermore, creating “Fake news” can be turned profitable – earning up to $10,000 a day (Marketplace, 2017)!

To sum it up, I think that “Fake news” cannot be prevented (especially now that we know it is a money-making machine). However, we can educate each other on how to navigate the internet – differentiating real from fake news. Let’s work together to make the internet a better place!

Word Count: 297


Jocelyn Goh

Shanelle Chong



Evaluation using PROMPT. 2017. Evaluation using PROMPT. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 17 November 2017].

Nina Exner. 2017. The CRAAP test – Evaluating Web Resources – LibGuides at North Carolina Agricultural & Technical State University. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 17 November 2017].

FutureLearn. 2017. Media Literacy – Learning in the Network Age – University of Southampton. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 17 November 2017].

Ars Technica. 2017. The social media “echo chamber” is real | Ars Technica. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 17 November 2017].

Tuck School of Business | Escaping the Echo Chamber. 2017. Tuck School of Business | Escaping the Echo Chamber. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 17 November 2017].

Medium. 2017. Designing to Escape the Filter Bubble – The Graph – Medium. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 17 November 2017].

NOTICE NIC.. 2017. WEIGHING UP INFORMATION CREDIBILITY – NOTICE NIC.. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 17 November 2017].

Living and Working on the Web. 2017. Overcoming Misinformation – Living and Working on the Web. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 17 November 2017].

Pew Research Center: Internet, Science & Tech. 2017. The Future of Truth and Misinformation Online | Pew Research Center. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 17 November 2017].

Marketplace from APM. 2017. Let’s do the numbers: the business of fake news. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 17 November 2017].

Alice G. Walton. 2017. ‘Psychological Vaccine’ May Protect Against Fake News, Alternative Facts. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 17 November 2017].




“Fake news” has been around since the final war of the Roman Republic (that’s in 30BC). It is when information is used as a weapon, to support and settle dissidence, or to simply, discredit real sources (The Telegraph, 2017). Before the rise of the internet, information distribution costs more and it is only effective with the presence of trust (which takes years to build)!

With the rise of social media,  the barriers to creating fake news have been undone – allowing anyone to create and distribute information. So, how do we validate what is real online? Check the video below out to find out how:

Evaluating the source based on the 5 criteria (author, audience, review process, currency, and perspective) is only limited to one’s digital literacy.



It is the ability to use, create and share digital content safely and responsibly. Digital literacy includes media, data and information literacy. Working together, they can provide an individual the best evaluation process.

Abandoned childrens are range from birth to teenagers..jpg

Fig 1.1 | Self-produced Media Literacy infographic using Canva

Infomation literacy is the ability to recognize when information is needed and have the ability to locate, evaluate and use effectively the needed infomation.

Data literacy is the ability to collect, manage, evaluate and apply data.

However the digital literacy of an individual can be affected by the digital differences one faces. This in turn, affects the ability to evaluate the sources – evaluating what is real from fake.

“…the solution to fake news isn’t better technology; it’s better people.”

– Standage, 2017

Providing people with digital knowledge and ability can allow them to be better internet users. However, it all boils down to one’s character – to create/distribute wrong infomation. Taking an example from the news hoax Facebook and Google faced from the Las Vegas shooting, where many internet users shared wrong information posted by satire/ hate blogs. This could be prevented if users and organizations validate their sources before posting.

Word Count: 295


Media literacy – Wikiversity. 2017. Media literacy – Wikiversity. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 15 November 2017].

The Telegraph. 2017. Fake news: What exactly is it – and can it really swing an election?. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 15 November 2017].

YouTube. 2017. How to Evaluate Sources – YouTube. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 15 November 2017]. 2017. No page title. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 15 November 2017].

1843. 2017. The true history of fake news | 1843. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 15 November 2017].